China’s tea area is divided into four major tea regions according to the ecological environment, tea tree varieties, and tea structure, namely South China tea Region, Southwest tea Region, Jiangnan tea Region, and Jiangbei tea Region.
1. South China Tea Region
South China tea region includes southeastern Fujian, Taiwan, south-central Guangdong, southern Guangxi, southern Yunnan, and Hainan. The tea tree varieties in South China are mainly large-leaved varieties, small tree, and shrub types small and medium-leaved varieties are also distributed, producing tea varieties such as oolong tea, black tea, black tea, green tea, and flower tea.
The annual average temperature is above 20℃, and the average temperature in January is more than 10℃, with a frost-free period of more than 300 days, and the annual extreme minimum temperature is not lower than -3℃.
The annual precipitation is 1200~2000 mm, of which more than 50% is in summer and less in winter. The soil in the tea area is mainly brick red loam, and in some areas, there is also red and yellow loam distribution, with deep soil layer and rich organic matter content.
2. Southwest Tea Region
The southwest tea region includes north-central Yunnan, northern Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing, and southeastern Tibet. Southwest tea region is rich in tea tree species, tree type large-leafed and small tree type, shrub type small and medium-leafed species are available, the production of tea varieties such as work black tea, black tea, green tea, black tea, flower tea, etc., is one of the main bases for the development of large-leafed black tea in China.
The average temperature is above 15.5℃, and the lowest temperature is around -3℃, and the individual area can reach -8℃, and the frost-free period is 200~340 days.
Southwest tea area rainfall is full of oil, with annual precipitation of 1000 ~ 1200 mm, but rainfall is mainly concentrated in the summer, winter and spring rainfall is low, such as Yunnan and other places often have early spring phenomenon. There are many soil types in the southwest tea region, mainly red loam, yellow red, brown red loam, yellow loam, red-brown, etc. The organic matter content is higher than other tea regions, which is conducive to the growth of tea trees.
3. Jiangnan Tea Region
Jiangnan tea area includes Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, southern Hubei, southern Anhui, and southern Jiangsu. The tea tree varieties in Jiangnan tea area are mainly shrub type, and small tree type also has certain distribution, producing tea types such as green tea, oolong tea, white tea, black tea, and flower tea.
The average annual temperature is above 15.5℃, and the extreme minimum temperature is not lower than -8℃, but the minimum temperature in winter can fall below -10℃ in some areas, and tea trees are vulnerable to frost damage. The frost-free period is 230~280 days. The maximum temperature in summer can reach over 40℃, and tea trees are easily burned.
The rainfall in Jiangnan tea area is sufficient, with an average annual rainfall of 1400~1600 mm, and in some areas the annual rainfall can be as high as 2000 mm or more, with more in spring and summer. The soil in the tea area is mainly red soil and yellow soil, and in some areas there are yellow-brown soil, purple soil, mountain brown and alluvial soil with high organic matter content.
4. Jiangbei Tea Region
The Jiangbei tea area includes southern Gansu, southern Shaanxi, southern Henan, southeastern Shandong, northern Hubei, northern Anhui, and northern Jiangsu. The tea tree varieties in Jiangbei tea area are mainly shrub-type small and medium-leaved species with strong cold resistance, and the main tea type produced is green tea.
The annual average temperature in most areas of Jiangbei tea area is above 15.5℃, and the extreme minimum temperature is -10℃, and the extreme minimum temperature can drop to -20℃ in individual years, causing serious frost damage to tea trees, and the frost-free period is 200~250 days.
The annual precipitation in Jiangbei tea area is low, below 1000 mm, and unevenly distributed, with about half of the rainfall in spring and summer. The soil in the tea area is the mainly yellow-brown realm, but also yellow-brown soil and mountain brown, with high pH value, sticky texture, often with a sticky disk layer, and low fertility.